Gum diseases

Gingivitis


GINGIVITIS (inflammation of the gum tissue) is a term used to describe non-destructive periodontal disease .

The most common form of gingivitis is in response to bacterial  bioflim also called plaque adherent to tooth surfaces, termed plaque-induced gingivitis, and is the most common form of periodontal disease.. In the absence of treatment, gingivitis may progress to periodontitis, which is a destructive form of periodontal disease.

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Signs and symptoms

The  symptoms of gingivitis are somewhat non-specific and manifest in the gum tissue as the classic signs of inflammation.

  • Swollen gums
  • Bright red or purple gums
  • Gums that are tender or painful to the touch.

Prevention

Gingivitis can be prevented through regular oral hygiene that includes daily brushing  and flossing.

Mouthwash or Hydrogen Peroxide can be helpful, usually using peroxide or saline solutions (water and salt), alcohol or chlorhexidine.

Rigorous plaque control programs along with periodontal scaling and curettage also have proved to be helpful and root planning are considered as a treatment to periodontal disease, not as a preventive treatment for periodontal disease[7].

Treatment

The focus of treatment for gingivitis is removal of the etiologic (causative) agent, plaque. Therapy is aimed at the reduction of oral bacteria, and may take the form of regular periodic visits to a dental professional together with adequate oral hygiene home care.

  • Metronidazole
  • Antiseptic Mouthwash
  • Floss
  • Hydrogen Peroxide Rinse
  • Gum Surgery
  • Cleaning
  • Curettage
  • ProxaBrush

Complications

  • Tooth loss
  • Recurrence of gingivitis
  • Periodontitis
  • Infection or abscess of the gingiva or the jaw bones
  • Bacterial infection and ulcerations of the gums)

 

Periodontitis


The word “periodontitis” comes from peri (“around”), odont (“tooth”) and -itis (“inflammation”).

Periodontitis involves progressive loss of the alveolar bone  around the teeth, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth.

Periodontitis is caused by microorganisms  that adhere to and grow on the tooth’s surfaces

. A diagnosis of periodontitis is established by inspecting the soft gum tissues around the teeth with a probe  (i.e. a clinical exam) and by evaluating the patient’s x-ray films (i.e. a radiographic exam), to determine the amount of bone loss around the teeth.

Signs and symptoms

Periodontitis manifesting as painful, red, swollen gums, with abundant plaque.

Prevention

Daily oral hygiene measures to prevent periodontal disease include:

  • Brushing properly on a regular basis (at least twice daily), with the patient attempting to direct the toothbrush bristles underneath the gum-line.
  • Flossing daily and using interdental brushes (if there is a sufficiently large space between teeth), as well as cleaning behind the last tooth, the third molar, in each quarter.
  • Using an antiseptic mouthwash .
  • Using a ‘soft’ tooth brush to prevent damage to tooth enamel and sensitive gums.
  • Using periodontal trays to maintain dentist-prescribed medications at the source of the disease..
  • Regular dental check-ups and professional teeth cleaning as required.

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